The Study of Forage Yield and its Components in Relation with Resistance to Alfalfa Weevil (Hypera postica Gyll.) in Some Medicago sativa Genotypes in Hamedan

Mehdi Kakaei, Hojatollah Mazahery-Laghab



Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important perennial forage crops in Iran. The aims of this study were to evaluate phenotypical and geneticalvariabilities in alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis and to select the most promising ecotype for further breeding programs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis were used for understanding data structure and traits correlation. Forty-six alfalfa ecotypes collected from different regions in Iran were sown and studied in the pattern of Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in a research field at Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Some important agronomic traits and the traits related to weevil pest attack were recorded during the growing season in 2012. The data were analyzed by multivariate statistics for determining groups based on their similarities. The studied ecotypes were classified into 4 clusters. Factor analysis was performed for all agronomic traits and reduced them to 4 common factors which accounted for 82% of the total variations among the ecotypes studied. Collected data were centered and scaled to unit variance and analyzed by principal component analysis. The results showed that the first four PCs contributed to 0.7% of the total variability among the ecotypes. In other words, data reduction would let the plant breeders to reduce field costs required to obtain the genetic parameter estimates necessary to construct selection indices.


Keyword: Alfalfa collection, Factor analysis, Forage yield, Principal component analysis

Full Text:



Ashofteh-Beiragi, M., Siah-Sar, B. A., Sadeghi-Geive, H., Alhossini, N., Rahmani, A., Bakhtiari-Gharibdoosti, A., 2012. Application of the multivariate analysis method for some traits in maize. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7 (10): 1524-1533.

Azad, M. A. K., Biswas, B. K., Alam, N., Alam, Sk. S., 2012. Genetic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. The agriculturists, A scientific journal of krishi foundation, 10 (1): 64-70.

Barcaccia, G., Albertini, E., Tavoletti, S., Falcinelli, M., Veronesi, F., 1999. AFLP fingerprinting in Medicago spp.: Its development and application in linkage mapping. Plant Breeding, 118 (4): 335-340.

Davodi, M., Jafari, A. A., Assadian, G., Ariapour, A., 2011. Assessment of relationships among yield and quality traits in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under dry land farming system, Hamadan, Iran. Journal of Rangeland Science, 1 (3): 247-254.

Falconer, D. S., 1960. Introduction to quantitative genetics. Oliver & Boyd, London. 304 p.

Hair, J. R., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., Black, W. C., 1995. Multivariate data analysis with readings. 4th edition, Prentice-Hall, En strateglewood Cliffs, NJ.

Hallauer, A. R., Russell, W. A., Lamkey, K. R., 1988. Corn breeding. In: corn and corn improvement. 3rdedn. Agron Monogr 18, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 469- 564.

Humphreys, M. O., 1991. A genetic approach to the multivariate differentiation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) populations. Heredity, 66: 437- 443.

Johnson, D. E., 1998. Applied multivariate methods for data analysts. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Press.

Kakaei, M., Mazahery-Laghab, H., Shararbar, H., 2015. Resistance mechanisms and protein expression of screening genotypes of alfalfa field germplasm to alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyll) (Col., Curculionidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 7: 77-89.

Khodarahmpour, Z., Soltani, A., 2013. Multivariate analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars for salinity tolerance at germination stage. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3 (2): 139- 144.

Mahalanobis, P. C., Majumdar, D. N., Rao, C. R., 1949. Anthropometric survey of the United Provinces: a statistical study. Sankhya:The Indian Journal of Statistics, 89-324.

Mazahery-Laghab, H., 1997. Endogenous resistance to insect pests in alfalfa; engineering for enhanced resistance. Durham Ph.D. Thesis.

Mohammadi, S.A., Prasanna, B. M., 2003. Analysis of genetic diversity in crop plants-salient statistical tools and considerations. Crop Science. 43 (4): 1235-1248.

Monteiro, M., Appezzato-da-Gloria, B., Jose Valarini, M., Alberto de, O., Lucia Carneiro Vieira, M., 2003. Plant regeneration from protoplasts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via somatic embryogenesis. Scientia Agricola, 60 (4): 683- 689.

Peeters, J. P., Martinelli, J. A., 1989. Hierarchical cluster analysis as a tool to manage variation in germplasm collections. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 7 (1): 42- 48.

Rao, C. R., 1960. Multivariate analysis: an indispensable statistical aid in applied research. Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics, 22: 317- 338.

Shoushi-Dezfuli, A. A., Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Sh., Rafiei-Boroujeni, F., Shiran, B., 2016. Evaluation of salinity tolerance of alfalfa genotypes during germination stage using multivariate analysis. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 6 (3): 51-56.

Tucak, M., Popovic, S., Cupic, T., Simic, G., Gantner, R., Meglic, V., 2009. Evaluation of alfalfa germplasm collection by multivariate analysis based on phenotypic traits. Romanian Agricultural Research, 26: 47-52.

Tucak, M., Popovic, S., Cupic, T., Spanic, V., Jug, I., 2011. Phenotypic diversity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm. Poljoprivreda, 17 (1): 36- 41.

Wiley, E. O., 1981. Phylogenetics: The theory and practice of phylogenetics and systematics. John Wiley, New York.

Zare, N., Valizadeh, M., Tohidfar, M., Mohammadi, S. A., Malboobi, M. A., Habashi, A. A., 2009. Selection of regenerative genotypes from Iranian alfalfa cultivars. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment,7: 567- 572.


  • There are currently no refbacks.